Deeper or wider? Future of the ever-closer union


  • Victoria Zbrzezniak


Over time, the European Union has progressively evolved into what aspires to be an ‘ever-closer union’ among the peoples of Europe. In fifty years, the European Union has managed to grow from six members to twenty-seven, and two leading schools of thought have often been mentioned when speaking about the future development of the European Union: either deepening or widening. However, since the European sovereign debt crisis of 2009 and the European migrant crisis beginning in 2015, public opinion surrounding the two schools of thought has shifted. Through the use of Eurobarometer and Eurostat data, I analyze citizens’ opinions and support for deepening or for widening. This project explores whether a member state’s date of joining, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, and citizen education levels throughout the country have an effect on citizens’ opinions and support for further deepening and/or widening of the European Union. The findings may assist in better understanding the future of the European Union.




How to Cite

Zbrzezniak, V. (2021). Deeper or wider? Future of the ever-closer union. Revue YOUR Review (York Online Undergraduate Research), 8. Retrieved from



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